This is achieved partially by situating the electronics, including amplifiers and filters, on the same die as the mechanical sensor. Ideally a gyroscope would be sensitive only to rotation rate and nothing else. In fact, there are multiple manifestations of acceleration sensitivity—the severities of which vary from design to design. The most significant are usually sensitivity to linear acceleration or g sensitivity and vibration rectification or g 2 sensitivity and can be severe enough to completely swamp the rated bias stability of the part.
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The output of some gyroscopes swings from rail to rail when the rate input is beyond the rated measurement range. Other gyroscopes have a tendency to lock up when exposed to shocks as small as a few hundred g. These gyroscopes are not damaged by the shock, but they no longer respond to rate and need to be power cycled to restart.
The ADXRS employs a novel approach to angular rate sensing that makes it possible to reject shocks of up to g —it uses four resonators to differentially sense signals and reject common-mode external accelerations that are unrelated to angular motion. The top and bottom resonator pairs in Figure 5 are mechanically independent and they operate antiphase. As a result, they measure the same magnitude of rotation but give outputs in opposite directions. Therefore, the difference between the sensor signals is used to measure angular rate.
This cancels nonrotational signals that affect both sensors.
Gyroscope Theory And Applications
The signals are combined in the internal hardwiring ahead of the preamplifiers. Thus, extreme acceleration overloads are largely prevented from reaching the electronics—thereby allowing the signal conditioning to preserve the angular rate output during large shocks. A simplified schematic of the gyroscope and associated drive and sense circuitry is shown in Figure 6. The resonator circuit senses the velocity of the resonating mass, amplifies, and drives the resonator while maintaining a well controlled phase or delay relative to the Coriolis signal path.
In addition, a self-test function checks the integrity of the entire signal chain including the sensor. One of the harshest environments for electronics is arguably encountered in the oil and gas downhole drilling industry. These systems utilize a multitude of sensors to better understand the motion of the drill string below the surface, optimize operations, and prevent damage. The drill rate of rotation measured in RPM is a key metric that the drill operator needs to know at all times.
Traditionally this has been calculated from magnetometers.
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However, magnetometers are subject to interference from ferrous materials present in the drill casing and the surrounding borehole. They also must be housed in special, nonmagnetic drill collars housings. Beyond simple RPM measurement, there is increasing interest in understanding the motion of the drill string or drilling dynamics to optimally manage parameters such as the amount of force applied, rate of rotation, and steering. Poorly managed drilling dynamics can result in high vibration and extremely erratic motion of the drill leading to longer drilling times to the target zone, premature failure of equipment, difficulty in steering the bit, and damage to the well itself.
The Gyroscope Theory and Applications - AbeBooks
In extreme cases equipment can be broken and left in the well, which then must be retrieved at a very high cost. The measurement range, or full-scale range, is the maximum angular velocity that the gyro can read. Think about what you are measuring. Do you need to measure the spin of a record player, which is very slow or a spinning wheel, which could be very fast?
It determines how much the voltage changes for a given angular velocity. A good rule to remember: as the sensitivity increases, the range decreases.
For example, look at the LPY gyro datasheet or any gyro with a selectable range:. As with any sensor, the values you measure will contain some amount of error or bias. You can see gyro bias by measuring the output when the gyro is still. These errors are sometimes called bias drift or bias instability. The temperature of the sensor greatly affects the bias. To help minimize the source of this error, most gyros have a built in temperature sensor. Thus, you are able to read the temperature of the sensor and correct or any temperature dependent changes.
In order to correct for these errors, the gyro must be calibrated. This is usually done by keeping the gyro still and zeroing all of the readings in your code. By now you should know how a gyro works and have a good foundation to start working with a gyro in a project of your own. Forgot your password? No account?
Register one! Need Help? Mountain Time: Chat With Us. Shopping Cart 0 items. Product Menu. Desktop Site Education. All Categories. Development Single Board Comp. Home Tutorials Gyroscope Gyroscope. Contributors: Member What is a Gyroscope Gyroscopes, or gyros, are devices that measure or maintain rotational motion. The objective of this research is to investigate the use of gyroscope in the stabilisation of rolling motion of a marine ship hull through simulation.
The Gyroscope Theory And Applications 1958 [Hardcover]
Mathematical models of a simple marine ship hull and two gyrostabiliser models, i. Simulation results show that both natural- and controller-driven gyrostabiliser are able to reduce the rolling motion through the gyroscopic effect of spinning flywheel, provided that the generated angular momentum is sufficiently large.
The percentage of roll reduction is affected by wave frequency but not the wave magnitude. Besides, controller-driven gyrostabiliser is able to reduce rolling motion more efficiently compared to the natural-driven gyrostabiliser. The excess energy consumed by the driven gyrostabiliser controller can be compensated by the lower energy consumption rate of the spinning flywheel with lower rotational speed.